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  1. Bell, Ian F. A. “The Paralyzed History of Canto XXXI.” Ezra Pound and History. Ed. Marianne Korn. Orono: National Poetry Foundation, Univ. of Maine, 1985. Print. 75-82.
  2. Bell, Ian F. A. “‘Speaking in Figures’: The Mechanical Thomas Jefferson of Canto 31.” Ezra Pound: Tactics for Reading. Ed. Ian F. A. Bell. London: Vision, 1982. 148-186.
  3. Eiselein, Gregory. “Jefferson in the Thirties: Pound’s Use of Historical Documents in Eleven New Cantos.Clio. 19.1 (1989): 31-40. 
  4. Fender, Stephen. “Ezra Pound and the Words off the Page; Historical Allusions in Some American Long Poems.” The Yearbook of English Studies  8 (1978): 95–108.
  5. Gery, John. “Pound and/or Franklin: A Reading of Canto 31.” Cross-Cultural Ezra Pound. Ed. John Gery et al. Liverpool: Liverpool UP, 2021. 37–50.
  6. Knight, Robert M. “Thomas Jefferson in Canto XXXI.” Paideuma: A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship 5.1 (1976): 79-93.
  7. Selby, Nick. “Revolutionary Figures in Canto XXXI.” Ezra Pound and America. Ed. Jacqueline Kaye. New York: St. Martin’s, 1992. 114-131.  



  1. Cookson, William. “XXXI-XXXIV. Thomas Jefferson, John Adams – John Quincy Adams.” A Guide to The Cantos of Ezra Pound. London: Anvil, 2009. 47-8.
  2. Coyle, Michael. “The Prose of the Pagany Cantos of 1931.” Ezra Pound, Popular Genres, and the Discourse of Culture. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1995. 99-113. 
  3. Davis, Earle. Vision Fugitive: Ezra Pound and Economics. Lawrence KS.: UP of Kansas, 1968. 122-3.
  4. De Rachewiltz, Mary and Maria Ardizzone. “Commento: XXXI.” Ezra Pound I Cantos. A cura di Mary de Rachewiltz. [Bilingual English-Italian edition]. Milano: Mondadori, 1985. 1522. 
  5. Fang, Achilles. “Materials for the Study of Pound’s Cantos.” 4 vols. Diss. Harvard U, 1958. Vol I: 47-9.
  6. Furia, Philip. Pound's Cantos Declassified.  University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1984. 51-3.
  7. Ickstadt, Heinz and Eva Hesse. “Anmerkungen und Kommentar: Canto XXXI.” Ezra Pound. Die Cantos. Tr. by Eva Hesse and Manfred Pfister. Eds. Manfred Pfister and Heinz Ickstadt. Zurich: Arche Literatur Verlag, 2013. 1237-40. 
  8. Kearns, George. “Reading Canto 31.” In Ezra Pound. The Cantos. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1989. 8-14.
  9. Kearns, George. “Canto 31. ”Guide to Ezra Pound’s Selected Cantos. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1980. 80-91.
  10. Makin, Peter. “Politics and Mobility: Cantos XXXI, XXXII, XXXIII.” Pound’s Cantos. London: Allen & Unwin, 174-78. 
  11. Moody, David. Ezra Pound: Poet. Vol. II: The Epic Years 1921-1939. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2014. 160-2.
  12. Pearlman, Daniel. The Barb of Time: On the Unity of Ezra Pound’s Cantos. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1969. 137-51. 
  13. Sieburth, Richard. “Notes: Canto XXXI.” Ezra Pound New Selected Poems and Translations. Ed. Richard Sieburth. New York: New Directions, 2010. 317-8.
  14. Surette, L.  A Light from Eleusis. A Study of Ezra Pound’s Cantos. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1979. 135-37.
  15. Terrell, Carroll F. “Canto XXXI.” A Companion to The Cantos of Ezra Pound. Berkeley: California UP, 1993. 119-124. 
  16. Wilhelm, J. J. Ezra Pound The Tragic Years. 1925-1972. University Park: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1994. 98-99.



  1. “XXXI.” A Canto a Day. Blog. 1 March 2009. Free online.
  2. Grieneisen, Jeff. “The Ezra Pound Project: Canto XXXI.” 10 December 2004. Free online
  3. Guidi, Paolo. “Canto 31.” Etching. 6 November 2012. Free online.
  4. Sellar, Gordon. “Blogging Pound's The Cantos: Canto XXXI-XXXIII.”, 6 August 2012. Web. 31 Oct. 2015. Free online.


Cantos in periodicals

A Draft of XXX Cantos

Eleven New Cantos

The Fifth Decad

rsz toscana siena3 tango7174

Cantos LII - LXXI

confucius adams 2