canto 4 1966 







  1. Baumann, Walter. “The Structure of Canto IV.” Ezra Pound: The London Years: 1908-1920. Ed. Philip Grover. New York: AMS, 1978. 117-138. Roses from the Steel Dust. Orono: National Poetry Foundation, 2000.
  2. Brinks, Ellen. “On Pound’s Fourth Canto.” Paideuma: A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship 19.1-2 (1990): 137-44.  
  3. Davenport, Guy. “Ezra Pound’s Radiant Gists: A Reading of Cantos II and IV.” Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature 3.2 (1962): 50-64.
  4. Dodd, Elisabeth. “Metamorphosis and Vorticism in The Cantos: How to Read the Allusive Image.” Midwest Quarterly 29.4 (1988): 425-37.   (Canto IV). 
  5. Glenn, E. M. “A Guide to Ezra Pound’s Cantos (I-IV).” The Analyst I (March 1953): 1-7.
  6. Griffin, Larry D. “Japanese Noh Drama and Ezra Pound’s ‘Fourth Canto.’” Conference of College Teachers of English Proceedings 55 (1995): 84-94. 
  7. Hesse, Eva. “New Light on Old Problems: The Mysterious ‘Tree of Visages’ in Canto IV/15: A Tentative Identification.” Paideuma 7.1-2 (Spring and Fall 1978): 181.
  8. Houwen, Andrew. “Ezra Pound’s Early Cantos and His Translation of Takasago.” Review of English Studies 65.269 (2014): 321-41. ezrapoundsociety.org. Web. 24 July 2016. 
  9. Kenner, Hugh. “Notes on Amateur Emendations.” In A Poem Containing History. Textual Studies in The Cantos. Ed. Lawrence Rainey. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1997. 21-29. pp.27-8.
  10. Mead, Henry. “Canto 4.” Readings in The Cantos. Ed. Richard Parker. Clemson: Clemson UP, 2018. 57-72.
  11. North, Michael. “Towers and the Visual Map of Pound’s Cantos.” Contemporary Literature 27.1 (1986): 19-21.
  12. Peacock, Alan J. “Pound, Horace and Canto IV.” English Language Notes 17 (1980): 288-92.
  13. Ringer, Marinelle. “The Rhythmic Structure of Pound’s Canto IV.” Paideuma: A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship 21.1-2 (1992): 65-80.
  14. Shioji, Ursula. “‘Hokku-Like’ Elements in Canto IV.” Paideuma: A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship 22.1-2 (1993): 221-30.
  15. Su, Kent. “Landscapes and Taoism in Ezra Pound’s Cantos.” Neohelicon, 6 January 2021.  Free online and here.
  16. Tao, Naikan. “Canto IV and the ‘Peach-Blossom-Fountain’ Poetic.” Ezra Pound and Poetic Influence. Ed. Helen M. Dennis. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi, 2000. 114-129.
  17. Taylor, Richard Dean. “Editing the Variorum Cantos, Process and Policy.”Paideuma. A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship 31.1, 2 and 3 (Spring, Fall, and Winter 2002 [2004]): 311-334.
  18. Williamson, Alan. “Mythic and Archetypal Methods: A Reading of Canto IV.” San Jose Studies 12.3 (1986): 105-10.



  1. Altieri Charles. “Modernist Abstraction and Pound’s First Cantos: The Ethos for a New Renaissance.” Painterly Abstraction in Modernist American Poetry.  Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2009. 283-320. Print.
  2. Bacigalupo, Massimo. “Annotazioni IV.” Ezra Pound XXX Cantos. Parma: Ugo Guanda, 2012. 339.
  3. Bacigalupo, Massimo. The Forméd Trace. The Later Poetry of Ezra Pound. New York: Columbia UP, 1980. Print. 22-27.
  4. Bacigalupo, Massimo. “To Verona.” In Venice and in the Veneto with Ezra Pound. Eds. Rosella Mamoli Zorzi, John Gery, Massimo Bacigalupo and Stefano M. Casella. Venezia: Supernova, 2007. 75-82.
  5. Baumann, Walter. “Towards the Ideal City.” Rose in the Steel Dust. Bern: Francke, 1967. 16-57. [Plan of canto IV, p.175].
  6. Baumann, Walter. “The Structure of Canto IV.” Roses in the Steel Dust. Orono: National Poetry Foundation, 2000. 65-82. 
  7. Brooker, Peter. “from Canto IV.” A Student's Guide to the Selected Poems of Ezra Pound. London: Faber 1979. 247-48.
  8. Bush, Ronald. The Genesis of Ezra Pound’s Cantos. Princeton N.J.: Princeton UP, 1979.
  9. Cookson, William. “IV: Troy-Ovid-Provence.” A Guide to The Cantos of Ezra Pound. London: Anvil, 2001. 10-13.
  10. Davenport, Guy. “The Rites.” In Cities on Hills. A Study of I-XXX of Ezra Pound’s Cantos. Epping: Bowker, 1983. 127-36.
  11. Davis, Earle. Vision Fugitive: Ezra Pound and Economics. Lawrence KS.: The UP of Kansas, 1968. 38-9.
  12. De Rachewiltz, Mary and Maria Ardizzone. “Commento: IV.” Ezra Pound I Cantos. A cura di Mary de Rachewiltz. [Bilingual English-Italian edition]. Milano: Mondadori, 1985. 1506-07.
  13. Dennis, Helen. Canto Four. A New Approach to the Poetry of Ezra Pound Through the Medieval Provençal Aspect. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Pres, 1996. 350-67.
  14. Eastman, Barbara. Ezra Pound's Cantos: the Story of the Text 1948-1975. Orono: Maine: National Poetry Foundation, 1979.
  15. Froula, Christine. “To Write Paradise…” Style and Error in Pound’s Cantos. New Haven: Yale UP, 1984.
  16. Froula, Christine. A Guide to Ezra Pound’s Selected Poems. New York: New Directions, 1983. 139-48.
  17. Gelpi, Albert. A Coherent Splendor. The American Poetic Renaissance, 1910-1950. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 197-198. (Canto IV) 
  18. Gibson, Mary Ellis. Epic Reinvented: Ezra Pound and the Victorians. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 93-5.
  19. Ickstadt, Heinz und Eva Hesse. “Anmerkungen und Kommentar: Canto IV.” Ezra Pound. Die Cantos. Tr. by Eva Hesse and Manfred Pfister. Eds. Manfred Pfister and Heinz Ickstadt. Zurich: Arche Literatur Verlag, 2013. 1196-98.
  20. Kenner, Hugh. “Introduction.” In Barbara Eastman. Ezra Pound's Cantos: the Story of the Text 1948-1975. Orono: Maine: National Poetry Foundation, 1979. xviii-xix.
  21. Kern, Robert. “Modernizing Orientalism/Orientalizing Modernism: Ezra Pound, Chinese Translation, and English-as-Chinese.” Orientalism, Modernism, and the American Poem. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. 155-220. [217-20]
  22. Liebregts, Peter. Ezra Pound and Neoplatonism. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2004. [Section:145-46]. Print.
  23. Makin, Peter. “Canto IV.” Pound’s Cantos. Baltimore: JHUP, 1985. 136-37.
  24. Moody, David A. “‘The Fourth Canto’, and a new poetic.” Ezra Pound Poet. Vol. I: The Young Genius. Oxford: Oxford UP. 363-9.
  25. Miyake, Akiko. "The Greek-Egyptian Mysteries in Pound’s ‘the Little Review Calendar’ and in Cantos 1-7.” Paideuma: A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship 7 (1978): 73-111.
  26. Pound, Ezra. “IV.” Posthumous Cantos. Ed. Massimo Bacigalupo. Manchester: Carcanet, 2015. 21-22.
  27. Qian, Zhaoming. “Imitating Wang Wei: Towards the Cantos.” In Orientalism and Modernism. The Legacy of China in Pound and Williams. Durham NC.: Duke UP, 1995. 88-110.
  28. Sicari, Stephen. “IV-VII.”  Pound’s Epic Ambition. Dante and the Modern World. New York: SUNY Press, 1991. 27-35.
  29. Sieburth, Richard. “Notes. Canto IV.” Ezra Pound. New Selected Poems and Translations. Ed. Richard Sieburth. New York: New Directions, 2010. 307-8.



  1. “Canto IV.” A Canto a Day. Blog, 17 January 2009. Accessed 4 August 2018. Free online.
  2. Annals Online. ProtoVariorum Canto IV. Ed. Richard Dean Taylor. Taylor website.
  3. Bressan, Eloisa. Il vortice greco-provenzale nell'Inferno de “I Cantos.” MA thesis, Padua U, 2012. 91-122.  Free online.
  4. “Canto IV.” Ezra Pound Reading His Poems. Internet Archive. archive.org.
  5. Guidi, Paolo. “Canto IV.” The Cantos of Ezra Pound. Etching series. 12 September 2012. Accessed 4 August 2018. Free online
  6. Pound, Ezra. “Canto IV.” Poetry Foundation. poetryfoundation.org.
  7. Pound, Ezra. “Canto IV.” Don Yorty Blog. [Pound’s reading of Canto IV with commentary.] Free online
  8. Prynne, J.H.  “Reading Pound: Six.”  [On “The Coming of War: Actæon” and Canto IV].  April 2006. Free online.
  9. Sellar Gordon. Blogging Pound’s The Cantos: Canto IV. Blog, 6 March, 2012. Free online.


Cantos in periodicals

Three Cantos (Ur-Cantos)

lake garda 267823





A Draft of XXX Cantos

A Draft of the Cantos 17-27


Eleven New Cantos

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The Fifth Decad

rsz toscana siena3 tango7174

Cantos LII - LXXI

confucius adams 2