main nave 


  1. Brooke Rose, Christine. A Structural Analysis on Pound’s Usura Canto. Jakobson’s Method Extended and Applied to Free Verse. The Hague: Mouton, 1976.
  2. Hesse, Eva, ed. Ezra Pound: Usura-Cantos XLV und LI. Texte, Entwürfe und Fragmente. Zürich: Arche Verlag, 1985.



  1. Araujo, Anderson. “Using Electronic Resources and Information Technologies to Teach Pound's Guide to Kulchur and Canto 45.” In Approaches to Teaching Pound’s Poetry and Prose. Eds. Demetres Tryphonopoulos and Ira Nadel. New York: MLA, 2021. 165-75.
  2. Barfoot, G. “The Theme of Usury in Dante and Pound.” Il Novecento inglese e italiano: saggi critici e comparativi: Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, Eugenio Montale, Giuseppe Ungaretti. Eds. Ghan Singh, and G. Barfoot. Pasian di Prato Udine: Campanotto, 1998. 57-82.
  3. Ferreccio, Giuliana. “Murder by Capital: the Usura Canto.” The Edinburgh Companion to Ezra Pound and the Arts. Ed. Roxana Preda. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 2019. 32-3.
  4. Lewis, Ethan. “Grammaria Usurae: Representational Stratagems in Canto XLV.” Paideuma: A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship 28.2-3 (1999): 223-8.
  5. Neidhardt, Frances E. “From Apelles to Pound’s ‘Usury’ Canto: Botticelli’s ‘La Calumnia’ Goes Modern.” Paideuma: A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship 12.2-3 (1983): 427-45. 
  6. Nicholls, Peter. “Ezra Pound and the Rhetoric of Address.” Affirmations: of the Modern. Special Issue on Rhetoric and Modernism. Free online.
  7. Nicholls, Peter. “Usury, Poetry, and Art: Canto 45.” Approaches to Teaching Pound’s Poetry and Prose. Eds. Demetres Tryphonopoulos and Ira Nadel. New York: MLA, 2021. 176-83. 
  8. Nicholls, Peter. “Canto 45.” Readings in the Cantos. Ed. Richard Parker. Vol.2. Clemson: Clemson UP, 2022. 27-34.
  9. Ozturk, Anthony.  “The Image as Inter-Text in Canto XLV.” Aldington, Pound, and the Imagists at Brunnenburg. Eds. Daniel Kempton and H.R. Stoneback.  Les Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer: Grtegau, 2012. 71-82.
  10. Péti, Miklós. “Usura Alone Not Understood?: A Rhetorical Consideration of ‘Usura’ in The Cantos” [on The Prioress’ Tale as one of several “possible intertexts” for Ezra Pound’s “Usury Cantos”].  Paideuma: A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship 30.3 (Winter 2001): 3-22. Free online.
  11. Preda Roxana “Economics: Usury.” The Ezra Pound Encyclopedia. Eds. Demetres Tryphonopoulos and Stephen J. Adams. Westport, CN.: Greenwood Press, 2005. 89-90.
  12. Twitchell, Jeffrey. “Art and the Spirit of Capitalism: Iconography and History in the Usura Canto.” Paideuma: A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship 19.3 (1990): 7-31. Print.
  13. Witemeyer, Hugh. “Ruskin and the Signed Capital in Canto 45.” Paideuma: A Journal Devoted to Ezra Pound Scholarship 4.1 (1975): 85-7.



  1. Bacigalupo, Massimo. The Forméd Trace. The Later Poetry of Ezra Pound. New York: Columbia UP, 1980. 59-61.
  2. Cookson, William. A Guide to The Cantos of Ezra Pound. London: Anvil, 1985. 63-5. 
  3. De Rachewiltz, Mary and Maria Ardizzone. ”Commento: XLV.” Ezra Pound. I Cantos. A cura di Mary de Rachewiltz. [Bilingual English-Italian edition]. Milano: Mondadori, 1985. 1533-4.
  4. Fisher Margaret. “Canto XLV.” Ezra Pound. Le Testament. 1923 Facsimile Edition. Eds. Margaret Fisher and Robert Hughes. Emeryville: Second Evening Art Publishing, 2011. 175-176.
  5. Flory, Wendy. Ezra Pound and The Cantos: A Record of Struggle. New Haven: Yale UP, 1980. 35-6; 151-2.
  6. Froula, Christine. “Canto XLV.” In A Guide to Ezra Pound’s Selected Poems. New York: New Directions, 1982. 172-8.
  7. Ickstadt, Heinz and Eva Hesse. “Anmerkungen und Kommentar: Canto XLI.” Ezra Pound. Die Cantos. Tr. by Eva Hesse and Manfred Pfister. 1260.
  8. Kearns, George. “Canto 45.” Guide to Ezra Pound’s Selected Cantos. New Brunswick N.J.: Rutgers UP, 1980. 121-5.
  9. Kenner, Hugh. The Pound Era. London: Faber, 1972. 323-33. 
  10. Lewis, Ethan. Modernist Image: Rhythmic and Perceptual Resonance in the Works of Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliot. With a foreword by Ben Lockerd. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 2007 [Chapter Two. Imagist Technique in the Cantos, 49-86; Appendix. Grammaria Usurae: Representational Stratagems in Canto XLV, 177-181].
  11. Liebregts, Peter. Ezra Pound and Neoplatonism. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2004. 229-30.
  12. Makin, Peter. “Canto XLV: ‘With Usura.’” In Pound’s Cantos. London: Allen & Unwin, 1985. 202-6. 
  13. Malm, Mike. “Canto 45.” In Editing Economic History: Ezra Pound’s The Fifth Decad of Cantos. New York: Peter Lang, 2005. 79-80.
  14. Marsh, Alec. Money and Modernity. Pound, Williams and the Spirit of Jefferson. Tuscaloosa: The U of Alabama P, 1998. 40-1.
  15. Moody, David A. Ezra Pound: Poet. A Portrait of the Man and His Work. II: The Epic Years 1921-1939. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. 217-18.
  16. Robinson, Peter. “Ezra Pound and Italian Art.” Pound’s Artists. Ezra Pound and the Visual Arts in London, Paris and Italy. London: Tate Gallery Publications, 1985. 121-176. [Section: 133-134.]
  17. Schmied, Wieland. Die Schwierige Schönheit. Ezra Pound und die Bildende Kunst. Aachen: Rimbaud, 2003. 78-82; 104-8.
  18. Sieburth, Richard. Instigations. Ezra Pound and Remy de Gourmont. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard UP, 1978. 33-4.
  19. Sieburth, Richard. “Notes: Canto XLV.” Ezra Pound New Selected Poems and Translations. Ed. Richard Sieburth. New York: New Directions, 2010. 322-3.
  20. Stock, Noel. Reading the Cantos. A Study of Meaning in Ezra Pound. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966. 43-9.
  21. Surette, L. A Light from Eleusis. A Study of Ezra Pound’s Cantos. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1979. 78-80.
  22. Terrell, Carroll F. “Canto XLV.” In Companion to The Cantos of Ezra Pound.” Berkeley: U of California P., 1980. 172-80.
  23. Tryphonopoulos, Demetres. The Celestial Tradition. A Study of Ezra Pound's The Cantos. Waterloo ON: Wilfrid Laurier UP, 1992. 144-6.



  1. “Terra Usurata: With Usura - Some Footnotes on Ezra Pound’s Canto XLV.”, 23 Oct. 2010. Blog. 28 March 20162016. Free online.
  2. Accame, Giano. “Art and Usury from Dante to Pound.” [Ch. 1 of Ezra Pound Economista contro l’usura. Edizione Settimo Segillo, 1995]. Trans. Wayne Pounds. Flashpoint Extra issue 11 (Winter 2008). Free online
  3. Alcalay, Ammiel. “Ammiel Alcalay on Ezra Pound’s Canto XLV.” Dispatches Poetry Wars, May 10, 2020. Free online.
  4. Bollig, Ben. “What Do We Say When We Say ‘Juan Gelman’? On Pseudonyms and Polemics in Recent Argentine Poetry.” Modern Language Review 109.1 (January 2014): 121-138 [in part, on Juan Gelman’s reading of Pound as an anti-capitalist as expressed in Canto XLV, 128-129]. Free online.
  5. Clark, Tom. “‘...seeth no man Gonzaga...’: Andrea Mantegna: The Court of Gonzaga / Ezra Pound: from Canto XLV.” Beyond the Pale, 6 January 2014. Accessed 24 April 2016. Free online.
  6. Davies, Daniel. “The Economics of Pound’s Canto 45.” D-squared Digest, 28 February 2003. Free online.
  7. Dunn, John.  “‘Mysterium’/’Usura’ - Ezra Pound on good and evil.”  John Dunn, 4 January 2014. Free online.
  8. Guidi, Paolo. “Canto XLV.” Etching. 22 October 2013. Go to site.
  9. Keresey, Brendon. “A Hypertext Translation of Ezra Pound’s Canto 45.” Flashpoint Extra issue 11 (Winter 2008). Free online.
  10. Lightman, Ira. “Pound on Pounds.” [Conversation with David Moody, Judi Sutherland, and Barry Eichengreen.] Broadcast. BBC Radio 4, 31 Aug 2015. Web. 3 Feb. 2016. Free online.
  11. Pound, Ezra. “Canto XLV.” Poetry Foundation. Free online.
  12. Sellar, Gordon. “Cantos XLII-XLV.” Part 32 of 55 in the series Blogging Ezra Pound’s The Cantos., 15 September 2012. Free online.
  13. Wilson Cantariño, Erika Giselle.  “Analysis and commentary of Canto XLV by Ezra Pound.” English Poetry of the XIX and XX Centuries, Universitad de València, June 2006. Free online.


A Draft of XXX Cantos

ship4 for c1