534px Album of the Yongzheng Emperor in Costumes 6


Yong Tching (Chi tsong hien Hoang Ti) 1723

Kien Long 1736

Ezra Pound The Cantos New York: New Directions, 1998. 256


Both the son [Yongzheng] whom he [Kangxi] appointed to succeed him and that emperor’s successor [Qianlong], were exemplary Confucian rulers, so that the Histoire générale and Pound’s ‘China Cantos’, conclude upon an affirmative note. Yong Tching honoured his forebears and the spirits of the fields and of heaven, and actively ‘sought good of the people’. He reformed the laws – ‘No death sentence save a man was thrice tried’. The Christians were put out, for ‘disturbing good customs/ seeking to uproot Kung’s laws’. Graft was put down, and the cheating of the poor. The distribution of rice was controlled, to maintain a just price and provide against famine. The history books were updated and reverenced. The emperor ploughed his ceremonial furrow, as writ in LI KI in the old days’. And as the population increased new land was opened up and there were tax exemptions for bringing it under cultivation. Thus the Confucian paideuma once again brought peace, justice, and abundance to China. Meanwhile in Europe and in America violent revolutions were preparing against the oppression of their rulers.

David Moody, Ezra Pound: Poet II: 282.








Twitchell-Waas, Jeffrey. “Canto 61.” Readings in the Cantos. Ed. Richard Parker. Vol.2. Clemson: Clemson UP, 2022. 119-128.


  1. Cookson, William. “Yong Tching – Kien Long.” A Guide to The Cantos of Ezra Pound. London: Anvil, 2009. 91-2.
  2. De Rachewiltz, Mary and Maria Ardizzone. “Commento: LXI.” Ezra Pound. I Cantos. A cura di Mary de Rachewiltz. [Bilingual English-Italian edition]. Milano: Mondadori, 1985. 1549.
  3. Fang, Achilles. “Materials for the Study of Pound’s Cantos.” 4 vols. Diss. Harvard U, 1958. Vol I: 165-8.
  4. Ickstadt, Heinz and Eva Hesse. “Anmerkungen und Kommentar: Canto LXI.” Ezra Pound. Die Cantos. Tr. by Eva Hesse and Manfred Pfister. 1289-90. 
  5. Moody, David A. Ezra Pound: Poet. A Portrait of the Man and His Work. II: The Epic Years 1921-1939. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. 282.
  6. Nolde, John. Blossoms from the East. The China Cantos of Ezra Pound. Orono: National Poetry Foundation 1983. 397-427.
  7. Terrell, Carroll F. “Canto LXI.” In Companion to The Cantos of Ezra Pound.” Berkeley: U of California P., 1980. I: 256-8.



  1. Guidi, Paolo. “Canto LXI.” Diamond point intaglio, selective hard ground, lift, etch, aquatint, copperplate. Printed on Arches 88 paper., 14 May 2014. Free online
  2. Sellar, Gordon. “Canto LXI.” Part 46 of 56 in the series Blogging Ezra Pound’s The Cantos., 7 March 2017. Free online.


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